Belarus sits between Poland to the west and the Russian Federation to the east. Previously part of the Soviet Union, it has been independent since 1991. The country is home to over nine million people, and has high levels of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease which commonly affects the lungs. Untreated, active tuberculosis is fatal. While treatments exist, some forms of the disease are resistant to the most common tuberculosis drugs.

Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) first worked in Belarus in 2015, and has focused on projects addressing drug-resistant tuberculosis.