Problems of the heart
19 November 2009 Comments
Though it is without question a fascinating and vitally important branch of medicine, cardiology has never been my strong suit. It requires a patience that I lack but which is essential to delve successfully into the stories behind the myriad factors and events which have usually conspired to produce a heart problem in any particular person. This is particularly true for the patients I am seeing here in NWFP, where access to quality health assessment, a reliable supply of medicines and adequate follow-up are far from guaranteed. As a result, the cardiology patients I see here on a daily basis are often in a very serious condition with complex and advanced problems that have been mismanaged or neglected entirely – I have really had to hit the books to keep up!
It was a problem of the heart that brought a young man called Tariq into the resus room of the MSF ER the other day. Well, he actually came in because he felt very short of breath which would suggest a lung problem but this had in turn been caused by a kidney malfunction…and all of it related back to a throat infection he had caught several weeks earlier. See what I mean about the complexities of cardiology!
When I first saw Tariq he was breathing at over 60 breaths per minute. I challenge you to pause for a moment and try and do this consciously for a while. Exhausting isn’t it? Breathing at this rate for several hours had made him so tired he could barely sit upright or keep his eyes open – he was deteriorating fast and we needed act. The MSF team had already started oxygen and detected that he had a lot of fluid built up in his lungs which was causing the shortness of breath. Sorting this out was our first priority. Using a combination of intravenous and oral medications and a lot of encouragement we managed to stabilise our young patient and could then go about the task of figuring out exactly what had happened.
Sometime later, after a lot of patience and some detailed questioning, the story started to unfold: several weeks earlier Tariq had had a sore throat.
Though he managed to see a medical practitioner relatively quickly, the treatment he received was inappropriate. The infection resolved several days later of its own accord and he thought nothing further of it. Then, about a week before he presented in such a serious condition to the ER, he noticed that his feet and face were starting to swell up. A few days later he began to get more and more short of breath, and finally the problem was so severe that he was rushed to the hospital. What had caused this unfortunate chain of events? Well: in response to the untreated throat infection, Tariq’s immune system (as it was designed to do) produced antibodies to attack and kill the invading organisms – so far so good – but then something went wrong. The antibodies circulating in his blood got “confused” and started to identify his own cells as invaders, and began attacking them in the membranes of his kidneys – the body, what a mysterious beast! During our assessment, we had already picked up that there was blood and protein in Tariq’s urine which was the evidence of the kidney damage and because his kidneys were no longer able to excrete fluid as normal, it began to build up in his body (hence the swelling) and eventually built up to such an extent that his heart could no longer cope with the load. And so we come to the problem of his heart: drowning in fluid it had begun to fail, fluid was forced into his lungs and very shortly thereafter he was fighting for his life.
Things could have been very different for Tariq. Had his throat infection been diagnosed and treated properly, that would have been the end of it. Even if he had developed this rare complication but had been able to easily and rapidly access quality healthcare, the problem could have been managed very simply when it was far less severe. But, Tariq is very poor and he lives in a part of the world with a very poorly developed healthcare system. Luckily he managed to get to our ER and as a result, his heart will be beating for many years to come, but this story could easily have been the end of him.
A close friend of mine died tragically in recent days. While he didn’t have a problem of the heart, his death has caused me to reflect once more on the fact that none of use knows how many heartbeats we have left. Don’t waste yours for each one is precious.